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Medical Physiology A K Jain Pdf WORK Free Download


In this Review, we define typical menstruation using a standardized system developed by global experts and approved by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Committee (MDC). This system facilitates the definition and standardization of what constitutes abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB: FIGO Systems 1 and 2)2. We address the considerable impact of non-malignant AUB across the globe before discussing how delineating the physiology of menstruation could inform and improve the management of non-malignant AUB by optimizing diagnosis and treatment. This Review focuses on the biomedical aspects of menstruation, while acknowledging that cultural, social, environmental and political factors have a notable influence on menstrual health8. Comprehensive discussion of these important non-biomedical aspects can be found elsewhere and are therefore not discussed in detail here9.




medical physiology A k jain pdf free download



New and emerging technologies (Box 2) provide cross-discipline opportunities to offer insights into the biology of the endometrium in health and disease. These technologies have a potential role in diagnostics and could allow the monitoring of responses to treatment in clinical research. Additionally, they could provide avenues to elucidate the pathophysiology of conditions that cause AUB and identify novel targets for disease-modifying drug therapy196,197,198. These biomedical advances are being made alongside changes in policy and culture (for example, the introduction of free period products in Scotland and New Zealand) and an increasing discourse in society regarding menstruation199,200. Combined efforts to address menstrual shame, stigma and taboos, create menstrual-friendly policies and advance menstrual research will have considerable benefits for menstrual health as a whole. As an area of huge unmet clinical need, endometrial physiology research provides exciting opportunities for scientific advances whilst also having the potential to lead to a substantial positive impact on a global scale.


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