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Katzung Pharmacology Pdf Free [PORTABLE] 15

Almost 50% of antimicrobial agents (AMA) used even in developed nations like the US are felt to be unnecessary.[1] Noninfectious diseases or infections of viral etiology are often prescribed AMA inappropriately.[2] In 2015, the English surveillance program for antimicrobial utilization and resistance reported an increase of 8.5% prescriptions of antimicrobials in out-patient departments of health care settings from 2010 to 2014.[3] The situation in developing nations is even worse where antibiotics are available freely and to some extent unregulated. No wonder, India is the largest consumer of antibiotics in the world.[4] An effective antimicrobial stewardship program (AMSP) would improve the use of AMA in a health care setup and reduce the burden of infections. All clinicians need to obtain cultures of pathogenic microbes before starting an antibiotic, review it after 48-72 h and then optimize the dose and duration of antibiotic therapy.[3] A questionnaire-based survey among clinicians of teaching hospitals in eastern India revealed that more than 55% of respondents acknowledged misuse of antibiotics mainly due to deficient training in rational use of medicines and absence of antibiotic policy.[5] A survey on AMSP in India reported that AMA usage data were utilized in only 25% of health care institutions and AMA prescription audit by only 30%.[6] The World Health Organization has recently categorized anti-infective agents in the essential medicines list into ACCESS, WATCH, and RESERVE groups to restrict widespread use...

Katzung Pharmacology Pdf Free 15

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