Katzung Pharmacology Pdf Free [PORTABLE] 15
Almost 50% of antimicrobial agents (AMA) used even in developed nations like the US are felt to be unnecessary. Noninfectious diseases or infections of viral etiology are often prescribed AMA inappropriately. In 2015, the English surveillance program for antimicrobial utilization and resistance reported an increase of 8.5% prescriptions of antimicrobials in out-patient departments of health care settings from 2010 to 2014. The situation in developing nations is even worse where antibiotics are available freely and to some extent unregulated. No wonder, India is the largest consumer of antibiotics in the world. An effective antimicrobial stewardship program (AMSP) would improve the use of AMA in a health care setup and reduce the burden of infections. All clinicians need to obtain cultures of pathogenic microbes before starting an antibiotic, review it after 48-72 h and then optimize the dose and duration of antibiotic therapy. A questionnaire-based survey among clinicians of teaching hospitals in eastern India revealed that more than 55% of respondents acknowledged misuse of antibiotics mainly due to deficient training in rational use of medicines and absence of antibiotic policy. A survey on AMSP in India reported that AMA usage data were utilized in only 25% of health care institutions and AMA prescription audit by only 30%. The World Health Organization has recently categorized anti-infective agents in the essential medicines list into ACCESS, WATCH, and RESERVE groups to restrict widespread use...
Katzung Pharmacology Pdf Free 15